Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Fall of Communism essays

The Fall of Communism essays Politics and Government in central and Eastern Europe. In this essay, I will examine what Communism is, the factors that have led to the collapse of Communism and how Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Communism is a political philosophy based upon the principle of collective ownership of both property and the means of production. Communists therefore, view history from the perspective of class struggle and seek to establish a classless society, or in its most ideal form a "dictatorship of the proletariat."1 The idea of a communal society, a fundamental element of communist thought, is not knew, but dates back to the ancient Greeks and was advanced by Plato in his philosophical work the Republic and T. More's Utopia in 1516, which promoted the idea of a communal society. The Industrial Revolution and the severe economic hardships suffered by workers, however, gave rise to socialism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and modern communism emerged from the socialist movement, first as a radical wing of socialism and finally in early twentieth century as a separate and distinct ideology of revolution and collective ownership. The fundamental rivalry between communist and capitalist societies has been a factor in world history since the creation of the first Communist State, the USSR, and therefore, since one was destined to collapse at the end, Communism collapsed. There are many factors which have contributed, over the years, to the collapse of communism, such as the Soviet economic stagnation, the political corruption and the lack of reforms, but the actual collapse of Communism is mainly due to Gorbachev's radical reforms and this is what I am going to focus on. The momentous changes that took place in the Soviet Union under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev are usually described by two Russian words: glasnost and perestroika. The terms glasnost and perestroika came into common use ...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Capital Structure Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Capital Structure - Assignment Example Perhaps the value of the firm does depend on how its assets, cash flows and growth opportunities are sliced up and offered to investors as debt and equity claims. There are surely investors who would be willing to pay extra for particular types or mixes of corporate securities. For example, investors cannot easily borrow with limited liability, but corporations provide limited liability and can borrow on their stockholders' behalf. There has been constant innovation in the design of securities and in new financing schemes. Innovation proves that financing can matter. If new securities or financing tactics never added value, then there would be no incentive to innovate (Myers 2001). Modigliani and Miller's (1958) theory is exceptionally difficult to test directly, but financial innovation provides convincing circumstantial evidence. The costs of designing and creating new securities and financing schemes are low, and the costs of imitation are trivial. (Fortunately, securities and financing tactics cannot be patented.) Thus temporary departures from Modigliani and Miller's predicted equilibrium create opportunities for financial innovation, but successful innovations quickly become "commodities," that is, standard, low-margin financial products. The rapid response of supply to an innovative financial product restores the Modigliani and Miller equilibrium. ... The Miller theory will be referred again in later parts of this paper. Corporate Taxation In 1977, Merton Miller revisited the issue of the impact of corporate taxation on the irrelevance propositions in a classic paper titled "Debt and Taxes" that shows perhaps better than any of his other papers how he could use arbitrage arguments to change how finance academics and practitioners understood how the world works (Miller 1977). In that paper, he pointed out that the tax advantage of corporate debt might be mostly if not completely illusory. Because interest on corporate debt is taxed as income for the holder of corporate debt, the interest paid on corporate debt must be high enough so that the after-tax income from holding corporate bonds is attractive relative to the income from equity which, when it accrues as capital gains, is taxed at a lower effective rate (Myers 2001). As a result, corporations get to deduct from their taxes interest payments but, because personal taxes on interest income are higher than on capital gains, the before-tax cost of capital on debt must be higher than on equity if investors are to hold debt (Stulz 2000). Interest is a tax-deductible expense. A taxpaying firm that pays an extra pound of interest receives a partially offsetting "interest tax shield" in the form of lower taxes paid. Financing with debt instead of equity increases the total after-tax dollar return to debt and equity investors, and should increase firm value (Myers 2001). Application of Taxation This present value of interest tax shields could be a very big number. Suppose debt is fixed and permanent, as Modigliani and Miller (1963) assumed, and that corporate income is taxed at the current 35 percent statutory rate.

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Using Health Information Technology as a Source of Evidence-Based Research Paper

Using Health Information Technology as a Source of Evidence-Based Practice - Research Paper Example Among the various health care IT resources that can be applied in the process of alleviating the effects of the nursing workforce shortages are; tele-health, clinical decision support systems, care planning tools, data capture, decision support system, computerized provider order entry, bar code medication administration, and electronic health records (Clark 22). This paper seeks to explore the last three resources as evidence based resources to help address shortages in the nursing workforce. The electronic health record acts as an official record for persons shared by multiple agencies and institutions. Health information systems that are digitized should improve care quality, efficiency, and ultimately reduce the effects of shortages. The EHR includes family history, allergies, contact information, insurance information, and hospitalization records, among others. Its benefits include efficient retrieval of information, automatic sharing and updating of information where different organizations and offices are concerned, as well as lower effort redundancy (Clark 56). These benefits, as well as others, aid health institutions in reducing reduce the time needed, by nurses, in retrieving information manually, and thus, reducing their workload. Another healthcare IT resource that helps to combat this shortage is patient monitoring technology. As the current nursing workforce continues its transition to proactive models of delivery of healthcare, remote monitored solutions are expected to gain more ground. Information that nurses are provided with include health intelligence, international health research, market analysis, news and commentaries, and strategic insights (Clark 67). These are especially useful since the strained workforce that work for 12 hours has limited time to attain this information themselves. Patient monitoring services offer knowledge on ongoing

Friday, January 31, 2020

Kalpana Chawla Essay Example for Free

Kalpana Chawla Essay Teachers Day BY vtnay2085 Speech given on the Teachers Day. Ghiyasuddin School, Wednesday 13th September 2006 Madam Aishath Adam, Senior Assistant Principal, Supervisors, members of the staff, Teachers and Dear Students. Assalaam Alaikum and Good afternoon. Today, we are here to celebrate great teachers and great teaching. As a fellow teacher, I find awkward to speak about teachers or for teachers. But, first, let me convey to all the teachers, my personal greetings and best wishes on the teachers day. Dear Teachers: Though a fellow teacher, I want to say I am proud of you. I am proud of your edication to the profession and for the personal sacrifices you make to teach our children. I am delighted of your devotion to train their questing minds, and for your inspiration of their hopeful hearts. I am proud that you take this responsibility seriously †that you see it as sacred trust. We celebrate teachers day, because we value you. I want to remind you that all the parents, students and the wider community deeply appreciate your commitment to teaching and to the children. There is no substitute for education. Firstly, because its the most precious gift we can give our children. Secondly, because its the most critical investment in our future. And thirdly, because its the most effective strategy which will enable us to survive and to thrive in a changing world. Dear Students: I became a teacher because of some of the happy experiences I had in school. There were teachers who touched my soul; who helped me realize my own potential. I decided to become a teacher because I want to help change someones life. Sometimes, it is hard. We have our own families, financial life and life problems that challenge us, like everyone else. Sometimes we are exhausted by our workload nd responsibilities. This is why teachers need encouragement and support. So that in turn, we can devote ourselves to our students. Dear staff and students; On Teachers Day every year, we remember our teachers, we remember our childrens teachers. We recognize these very dedicated people. People who give of themselves and take a personal interest in their students. Teachers who have touched our liv es, moulded us into what we are today, and are helping to shape tomorrows people, tomorrows students. Just as a country is as good as its people, so its citizens are only as good as their teachers. Therefore a great deal depends on you, teachers, and I salute you, all of you, those here today, and those absent, for your passion, dedication, commitment and contributions. I wish to all the teachers a successful career in teaching   a career in which you find happiness, health, friendship and love. Happy Teachers Day and thank you. Kalpana Chawla By Vaishakhi Status Deceased Born July 1, 1961 Karnal, Haryana, India Died February 1, 2003 (aged 42) Over Texas Previous occupation Research Scientist Time in space 31d 14h 54m selection 1994 NASA Group Mission insignia Sts-87-patch. ng STS-107 Flight Insignia. svg Kalpana Chawla , was an Indian-American scientist and a NASA astronaut. She was one of seven crewmembers killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Early life Kalpana Chawla was born in a Punjabi Hindu family at Karnal, Haryana, India. [l] She was born in Model Town Karnal. Kalpana in Hindi means imagination. Her interest in flying was inspired by J. R. D. Tata, a pionee ring Indian pilot and industrialist. [2][3]. Kalpana has two sisters (Sunita ; Deepa) and a brother (Sanjay). Being the youngest, the family members gave her the nickname Montu. She met and married Jean- Pierre Harrison, a flying instructor and aviation writer, in 1983 and became a naturalized United States citizen in 1990. [4] [edit] Education Chawla completed her earlier schooling at Tagore Public School, Karnal. She earned her B. E. degree in aeronautical engineering at Punjab Engineering College in Chandigarh in 1982. She moved to the United States in 1982 and obtained a M. S. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington (1984). Chawla went on to earn a second M. S. degree in 1986 and a Ph. D. degree in aerospace engineering in 1988 from the University of Colorado at Boulder. Later that year she began working for NASA Ames Research Center as vice president of Overset Methods, Inc. where she did CFD research on WSTOL. [2] Chawla held a Certificated Flight Instructor rating for airplanes, gliders and Commercial Pilot licenses for single and multiengine airplanes, seaplanes and gliders. She held an FCC issued Technician Class Amateur Radio license with the call sign KD5ESl. [edit] NASA career Chawla Joined the NASA astronaut corps in March 1995 and was selected for her first flight in 1998. that flew the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87. Chawla was the first Indian-born oman and the second person of Indian origin to fly in space, following cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma who flew in 1984 in a Soviet spacecraft. On her first mission Chawla travelled over 10. 4 million miles

Thursday, January 23, 2020

PepsiCo managerial methods Essay examples -- GCSE Business Marketing C

PepsiCo managerial methods I chose to look at PepsiCo Inc.’s managerial methods. I analyzed the companies organizational mission, ethics management and internet strategy. PepsiCo is a company with many different segments. The one company includes Pepsi-Cola brands, Tropicana brands, and Frito-Lay brands. Each section of the company has about ten to fifteen different brands in it. The management strategies cover all of the segments of the company. PepsiCo Inc.’s mission statement is as follows: â€Å"PepsiCo's overall mission is to increase the value of our shareholder's investment. We do this through sales growth, cost controls and wise investment of resources. We believe our commercial success depends upon offering quality and value to our consumers and customers; providing products that are safe, wholesome, economically efficient and environmentally sound; and providing a fair return to our investors while adhering to the highest standards of integrity.† I think that this mission statement is good because it focuses not only the success of the product, but also the success of the companies investors (including shareholders, which shows the company wishes success for it’s consumers as well). It also clearly states how the company believes it can achieve its mission, through sales growth, cost controls, and wise investment. These are the three main jobs of the management to maintain PepsiCo’s success. I don’t think that anything about their mission statement needs to be changed. I think everything is very clearly stated and it is persuasive in the sense that by reading it, a person can feel like the company knows what is best for them and it’s consumers at the same time. PepsiCo has many different ethics management policies. The two main ethics the company focuses on are the environmental commitment, and the minority/women business enterprises. Because the company produces food and beverages, PepsiCo does not have major environmental problems like a heavy industry does. The companies largest challenge when it comes to the environment is packaging for the products. The company recycle, reuses and reduces packaging whenever possible. Each individual business within the company is responsible for resources required in manufacturing to reduce waste as much as possible. PepsiCo has a â€Å"Environmental Commitment†... ...e of the largest online-off-line promotions ever. I think that PepsiCo has the internet covered fairly well. It is very easy for consumers to find their sites and was an extra bonus for the consumers to get something back from the company. I also think that with the promotions that Pepsi has incorporate their website well. The latest contests with sodas have mostly all required the consumer to go online to see if they won or to look for contest details. I don’t think that it would be necessary for PepsiCo to add much to their internet strategy because they aren’t known as an internet company. They are all over television, radio and magazines, and I don’t really feel that internet marketing would add much to the already nationally known company. I think, from what I learned of PepsiCo, that they have good management techniques that don’t need much revision. It’s fairly obvious by just looking at the company that they have succeed with things the way they have been all along. PepsiCo is a strong company who I believe will be a success for a long time to come. Bibliography PepsiCo Inc. 2001 Minority/Women Business Development Frito-Lay 2001

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Effects of the 8th Amendment on American Law Essay

The Eighth Amendment Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.†Ever since the Eighth Amendment was ratified by the states in 1791, it has been a key part of our Constitution. The Eighth Amendment has protected our people from many things, including an overly high bail or â€Å"unnatural† punishments. It has ensured that in civil matters, as well as criminal cases, the people of America are protected from an overly high bail and cruel and unusual punishments. The Eighth Amendment has stirred up many controversies with its many paths of interpretation, in that the U.S. amendments are written down on paper but sometimes not properly enforced. The 8th amendment is the one I favor least and is to be examined during this assignment. I take the double-minded position on the subject of the 8th Amendment of for and against this amendment. Is the Death Penalty an Effective Punishment? In my opinion yes, with at least one important respect, it simply cannot be argued that a killer, once executed, can ever kill again. The crime must fit the punishment in order to justify, and this punishment must not favor anyone on the foundation of color. If this were the case I would without a doubt totally agree with this amendment, however, Studies show that there are racial biases when the death penalty is carried out. Since the resumption of executions in the early 1980’s, 40 percent of those executed have been black. And more often than not blacks were more often executed than were whites without having their conviction reviewed by any higher court. The race of the victim and the defendant inevitably influences the decision to seek a death sentence. University of Iowa law professor David Baldus conducted an exhaustive criminal sentencing study in Georgia in the 1980s. He found that prosecutors sought the death penalty for 70% of black defendants with white victims, but only 15% of black defendants with black victims. Similar patterns of racial bias are found across the country. Over half of those on death row are people of color. Black men alone make up over 42% of all death row prisoners, though they account for only 6% of people living in the U.S. Nationwide, cases involving a white victim and a defendant of color are most likely to result in a death sentence. The Baldus study found that six out of ten defendants sentenced to death in Georgia for  killing a white person would not have received a death sentence had their victim been black. A case involving a white person was over four times more likely to result in a death sentence than was a comparable black victim case. In Maryland – the state with one of the highest percentages of African Americans on death row – a death sentence is eight times more likely in a white victim case than a black victim case, according to a 1987 Public Defender’s Office study. Nearly half of those executed since 1976 have been people of color, with blacks alone accounting for 35%. All told, 82% have been put to death for the murder of a white person. Only 1.8% was whites who had been convicted of killing people of African, Asian, or Latin descent. Meanwhile, people of color are the victims in more than half of all homicides. Since 1930, one in two persons executed was black. Ultimately I must stand on the side of opposition with this Amendment on the basis of bias and suggest a moratorium until a clear version of this amendment is established with clear mandatory sentences regardless of the victim or the defendants ethnicity and does what it initially intended to do which is protect The American citizen without breaking other amendments in the process. Criminal court procedures are at an all time slow and speedy trials are a thing of the past. The government spending and income policies need to be modified to modern times. Also the treason penalty should be more heinous in the new world.ins an important part of our government. Works Cited Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W. Education Information Resource Center City: Publisher N/A, 1987. McCLESKEY v. KEMP- 481 U.S. 27 [Ty

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Basic Architecture Of The Brain - 1025 Words

You live and you learn, from the moment that we breathe our first breath, we are assimilating and are acquiring information. Life changing and profound learning experiences happen before we can even speak, as children our learning process is grandiose. Harvard University published a series of summaries on Child development. One of these articles mentions that â€Å"The basic architecture of the brain is constructed through an ongoing process that begins before birth and continues into adulthood.† (InBrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development, n.d.). Constantly learning and growing in our lifetime, allows us to gain an understanding of the world around us. Analyzing, admiring and reaching for what the world has to offer, we are able to†¦show more content†¦HBO was a professional stepping stone for me, and I was fortunate enough to work alongside some of the best and brightest individuals I had ever met. The Controller was my manager, subsequently becoming my mentor, guiding me and teaching, allowing me to truly acquire a full in depth understanding of accounting principles and practices. In reviewing not just my own work, but the work submitted by multiple other departments, allowed me to analyze and determine what I wanted my career path’s natural progression to be. The fact that I was working along various C-level executives, granted me the possibility to move from jr. accountant to executive assistant, a position that required the detail oriented skills of accounting, along with the high regard for confidential ity, organization, and soft skills that came easy to me. Time progressed and in the winter of 2002, my husband and I moved to Texas. This was a difficult transition that we made, furthermore changing our lives forever. I was beginning to reflect on what my life was going to be, analyzing and looking towards the future. My husband and I began talking about forming a family. Throughout this time, I would reminisce about my mother being my primary care giver, I recalled the fact that she graduated college, yet decided to stay home with us. This placed me in the path of transformative learning. In transformative learning Mezirow (1991) mention’s that we have â€Å"broad sets of predispositions resulting fromShow MoreRelatedThe Metaphor Of Architecture In Ayn Rands Fountainhead1547 Words   |  7 PagesThe Metaphor of Architecture in The Fountainhead At the outset of her novel The Fountainhead, Ayn Rand delivers an unorthodox artistic theme. Unlike other conventional art forms like poetry, painting, or music that dwell upon human emotion, the unique theme bears its roots within the realm of reason and rational thought. The art of architecture is observed as the medium for which the implied values of selfishness, individuality, and independence are revealed. 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